Electronics Engineering

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Tuesday, September 21, 2021

WHAT IS CAPACITOR, ITS TYPES AND CAPACITOR USES?

In this article, we are going to discuss about WHAT IS CAPACITOR, ITS TYPES AND ITS USES?

 

WHAT IS CAPACITOR?

Electronic component  store energy in the form of electrostatic flux, A capacitor stores electric charge, expect it store energy in different way, it is little bit like a battery, Expect it stores energy in different way. It can’t store as much energy as a battery, although it can charge and release its energy much faster. Capacitor used in almost all types of circuit that’s why it is most important.

The capacitor has a long history and usage with more than 250 years ago the capacitors are the oldest electronic component being studied, designed, developed and used. With further technology, the capacitors are come up with different types based on their factors.

 

HOW DOES CAPACITOR WORK? 

We are taking example like a PIPE with water flowing through it. The water will continue to flow until we shut the valve, then no water can flow, if after the valve, suppose that water flow in tank, then the tank will store some of the water but we will continue to get water flowing out of the pipe. Now when we close the valve, water will stop pouring into the tank but we still get steady supply of water out until the tank empties, once the tank is filled again, we can open and close the valve as many time as per our wish. As long as we don’t completely empty the tank, we will get an uninterrupted supply of water out of the end of the pipe. So, we can use a water tank to store water and smooth out interruption to the supply. A capacitor is like a storage tank , it can be used to smooth out interruption to the supply

 

CAPACITOR– There is dielectric material between two conductive plate. Store high voltage values for a long time even when disconnected from a circuit.


DIELECTRIC – The material will polarize when in contact with an electric field.

We measure the capacitance of the capacitor in unit of farad.

 

Capacitance

Capacitance


The capacitance is the ratio of electric charge (Q) to the voltage (V) and the mathematical expansion is following.

          C = Q/V

        Where,

  • C is the capacitance in farad
  • Q is the electric charge in coulombs
  • V is the voltage between the plates in volts

 

Circuit board typically use microfarad (uF), We measure voltage in the units of volts , As per marking voltage means it is maximum voltage the capacitor can handle.

 

TYPES OF CAPACITORS

TYPES OF CAPACITORS

1.      Polar CAPACITORS – Electrolytic Capacitor, Super Capacitor

2.      Non Polar CAPACITORS – Ceramic Capacitor, Mica Capacitor, Film Capacitor.

            Electrolytic Capacitor – Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor and Tantalum Capacitor,  These are used in DC circuit.

            Super Capacitor – Low voltage & high capacitance

            Non Polar CAPACITOR

1.  Ceramic Capacitors – It is use in low voltage & High frequency circuit.

2.  Mica Capacitor – It is use in high voltage & low frequency circuit.

3.Film Capacitor – Polyester Film Capacitor,  Polyester Propylene Capacitor, Polycarbonate  Film Capacitor,  

 

 Also see Type of capacitors is used for decoupling


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